Volume 1, 2022



Vesela Eneva and Ivet Koleva
Pages: 76-84

ABSTRACT: An increasing problem is the body's inability to absorb nutrients from the food and from traditional oral supplements, due to the lack of digestive efficiency of the contemporaneous population. Obesity-related vitamin D deficiency is probably due to reduced bioavailability of vitamin D3 from food (poor eating habits). Consequences of hypokinesia of the modern citizen are weight gain and reduced velocity of metabolic reactions. Some digestive dysfunctions can discontinue the appropriate absorption of food supplements, e.g. ulcers (Helicobacter pylori), gastritis, IBS, Chron's disease, malabsorption; consequences of endocrine dysfunction, obesity, hepatic problems, alcoholism, drug abuse (NSAIDs, antibiotics, laxatives, metformin), celiakia, conditions after bariatric surgery and etc. We observe an increasing deficit of key nutrients, result of extreme diets and sedentary lifestyle. The efficacy of drugs is not guaranteed, due to dramatically increasing malabsorption.
The aim of present work is to realize a systematic review on publications discussing the effectiveness oof oral spray formulas compared to traditional tablets and capsules.
We used clinical researches, published by collectives oof the Universities oof Cardiff and oof Sheffield. The absorption of intra -oral spray forms is rapid (per buccal membrane or sublingually they penetrate directly to the bloodstream), Intra-oral spray forms do not pass through the digestive system. No interactions with other drugs or food. They are easy to apply - without water and without swallowing. Intra-oral spray technology has optimum bioavailability, quick intake, bypassing the primary processing by the gastrointestinal tract. These forms are more effective, fast and convenient alternative of tablets and capsules in the life of the modern citizen, in the context of increasing stress and aging population.


Keywords: intra-oral spray technology, vitamin deficiency, buccal absorption, digestive problems, obesity


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